Riddle #842

logic

Leap Year Birthday

Bill and Stacie are delighted when their new baby, Patrick, is born on February 29th, 2008. They think it's good luck to for him to be born on the special day of the leap year. But then they start thinking about when to celebrate his next birthday. After some thought, they decide that they want to celebrate Patrick's next birthday (when he turns 1) exactly 365 days after he was born, just like most people do. What will be the date of this birthday?
The date of the birthday will be February 28th, 2009. At first it might seem like his birthday should be March 1st, 2009, since February 29th is the day after February 28th in the leap year, while March 1st is the day after February 28th in non-leap years. But this is the wrong way to think about it. The right way to think about it is that 365 days after the day before March 1st is always February 28th, regardless of whether it's a leap year or not. So Patrick's birthday will be February 28th.
94.24 %
44 votes

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Twelve balls, one different

You have twelve balls, identical in every way except that one of them weighs slightly less or more than the balls. You have a balance scale, and are allowed to do 3 weighings to determine which ball has the different weight, and whether the ball weighs more or less than the other balls. What process would you use to weigh the balls in order to figure out which ball weighs a different amount, and whether it weighs more or less than the other balls?
Take eight balls, and put four on one side of the scale, and four on the other. If the scale is balanced, that means the odd ball out is in the other 4 balls. Let's call these 4 balls O1, O2, O3, and O4. Take O1, O2, and O3 and put them on one side of the scale, and take 3 balls from the 8 "normal" balls that you originally weighed, and put them on the other side of the scale. If the O1, O2, and O3 balls are heavier, that means the odd ball out is among these, and is heavier. Weigh O1 and O2 against each other. If one of them is heavier than the other, this is the odd ball out, and it is heavier. Otherwise, O3 is the odd ball out, and it is heavier. If the O1, O2, and O3 balls are lighter, that means the odd ball out is among these, and is lighter. Weigh O1 and O2 against each other. If one of them is lighter than the other, this is the odd ball out, and it is lighter. Otherwise, O3 is the odd ball out, and it is lighter. If these two sets of 3 balls weigh the same amount, then O4 is the odd ball out. Weight it against one of the "normal" balls from the first weighing. If O4 is heavier, then it is heavier, if it's lighter, then it's lighter. If the scale isn't balanced, then the odd ball out is among these 8 balls. Let's call the four balls on the side of the scale that was heavier H1, H2, H3, and H4 ("H" for "maybe heavier"). Let's call the four balls on the side of the scale that was lighter L1, L2, L3, and L4 ("L" for "maybe lighter"). Let's also call each ball from the 4 in the original weighing that we know aren't the odd balls out "Normal" balls. So now weigh [H1, H2, L1] against [H3, L2, Normal]. -If the [H1, H2, L1] side is heavier (and thus the [H3, L2, Normal] side is lighter), then this means that either H1 or H2 is the odd ball out and is heavier, or L2 is the odd ball out and is lighter. -So measure [H1, L2] against 2 of the "Normal" balls. -If [H1, L2] are heavier, then H1 is the odd ball out, and is heavier. -If [H1, L2] are lighter, then L2 is the odd ball out, and is lighter. -If the scale is balanced, then H2 is the odd ball out, and is heavier. -If the [H1, H2, L1] side is lighter (and thus the [H3, L2, Normal] side is heavier), then this means that either L1 is the odd ball out, and is lighter, or H3 is the odd ball out, and is heavier. -So measure L1 and H3 against two "normal" balls. -If the [L1, H3] side is lighter, then L1 is the odd ball out, and is lighter. -Otherwise, if the [L1, H3] side is heavier, then H3 is the odd ball out, and is heavier. If the [H1, H2, L1] side and the [H3, L2, Normal] side weigh the same, then we know that either H4 is the odd ball out, and is heavier, or one of L3 or L4 is the odd ball out, and is lighter. So weight [H4, L3] against two of the "Normal" balls. If the [H4, L3] side is heavier, then H4 is the odd ball out, and is heavier. If the [H4, L3] side is lighter, then L3 is the odd ball out, and is lighter. If the [H4, L3] side weighs the same as the [Normal, Normal] side, then L4 is the odd ball out, and is lighter.
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